Pan European Networks - Horizon 2020 - page 102

T
he Department of Monogastric Nutrition of the Kielanowski
Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition in Jabłonna
(Poland) specialises in conducting research on the
physiology of nutrition of pigs and poultry (broiler chickens in
particular). One line of research focuses on improving feeding
recommendations, others investigate the influence of nutritional
factors on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, nutrient
digestibility and metabolism.
For pigs, particularly for weaned piglets, changes in the
composition, form, and quality of feedstuffs may cause health
problems and inhibit their growth. Morphological and functional
changes in the digestive tract can be modulated by bioactive
compounds present in feedstuffs or added to the diet. In addition
to changes in morphology, a very important issue is microbial
activity, mostly in the large intestine. Species composition, as well
as the number of microbes, not only influences fermentation of
nutrients reaching the caecum and colon but also creates the
environment for the digesta.
Fermentation of carbohydrates leads to increased concentrations
of short-chain fatty acids, which are important as a source of
energy for the host (i.e. the pig). The decreased pH negatively
affects the development of pathogens, thus supporting the health
of the animal. Some of the short-chain fatty acids are also
important as an indirect source of energy for the intestinal
mucosa. The concentrations of ammonia, phenolic compounds,
and amines, which are affected by the intensity of protein
degradation, can adversely influence health status and indirectly
indicate the quality of protein. Protein undigested in the small
intestine flows to the large bowel and is degraded by microbial
enzymes. This protein is mostly lost for the animal and contributes
to environmental pollution.
Microbial activity in the intestine may activate carcinogenic
compounds. Monitoring of bacterial enzyme activity, including
β
-
glucuronidase,
β
-glucosidase and mucinase, can be helpful in
determining the risk of developing cancer.
Recent examinations
Recently we have examined the influence of various types of
protein, differing in their digestibility in the small intestine, fed with
indigestible carbohydrates (resistant starch, pectin, cellulose) on
the fermentation processes in the large intestine and their role in
digestive tract development.We found that the effect of protein
type on microbial activity in the large intestine is modified by the
type of carbohydrate in the diet, and that this should be taken
into account during formulation of diets for pigs. In other research
connected with digestive tract development and microbial activity,
the possibility of using inulin-type fructans from chicory roots or
Jerusalem artichoke as feed additives was examined. In piglets
and chickens, some beneficial results that depended on the
degree of fructan polymerisation were observed. Dietary
supplementation with inulin and a probiotic preparation also had
a beneficial effect.
Among the bioactive compounds studied, tannic acid was
examined as a representative of hydrolysable tannins, which are
present in many feeds of plant origin, because they can form
indigestible complexes with nutrients, particularly with proteins.
Dietary protein bound to tannic acid becomes indigestible in the
small intestine and undergoes microbial degradation in the large
intestine, leading to increased production of short-chain fatty
The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition focuses on
improving feeding recommendations for pigs and poultry and the influence of
nutritional factors
Healthy pork and poultry
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