Pan European Networks - Horizon 2020 - page 103

acids but also potentially toxic compounds. On the other hand,
supplementation of the diet with tannic acid inhibits bacterial
β
-
glucuronidase activity, reducing the risk of carcinogenesis.
Another problem crucial in pig nutrition is establishing the proper
level of amino acids and determining their role in pigs. In our
previous studies we examined the requirements of growing pigs
for methionine, tryptophan and, recently, threonine, particularly its
utilisation when various levels of endogenous amino acids were
supplied to diets. One important finding is that threonine-deficient
diets decrease the number of acidic goblet cells which produce
mucus, an important component of the intestinal barrier
protecting against pathogens.
Broiler chickens
One of the very important topics that we work on is improvement
of the functional properties of broiler chicken meat. Excess
saturated fatty acids and a high proportion of n-6 to n-3
unsaturated fatty acids in human diets can promote many
diseases of civilisation, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity,
cancer and diabetes. Much research has been conducted to
increase the deposition of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly
from the n-3 family, especially with pigs and poultry. In our
experiments, we tried to achieve this improvement by using
various sources of unsaturated fatty acids, including fish oil,
linseed oil and rapeseed oil, in different combinations and fed
them at different times before slaughter.
In parallel, we examined supplementation with natural
antioxidants.We found that rapeseed and fish oil can be used for
the modification of fatty acid composition in broiler meat. The
meat and fat of broilers fed diets with rapeseed, linseed and fish
oil can be considered high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but
the dietary level of fish oil should not exceed 1% to avoid
deterioration of the sensory characteristics of animal products.
Increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids in the diet, and finally
in the meat and fat of broiler products, requires supplementation
with vitamin E and selenium to counteract oxidative stress and to
increase the stability of these acids during frozen storage.
Since the use of feeds derived from genetically modified (GM)
plants is strongly criticised in Poland, we investigated the
possibility of adverse effects of their use in broiler feed mixtures.
The use of GM soybean meal and maize in broiler diets did not
affect performance or immunological status, intestinal
morphology, epithelial cell turnover rate in the small intestine,
intestinal ecosystem composition and activity. However,
Clostridia
in birds fed a GM soybean meal were more resistant to
kanamycin compared with a conventional soybean meal.
The effects of using locally produced plant protein sources as an
alternative to GM soybean meal were also evaluated. Among
others, different varieties of pea and lupine seeds, raw or
processed, as well as rapeseed products, were used in pig and
broiler diets supplemented with enzymes or probiotics. It was
found that partial replacement of a soybean meal by protein from
different legumes or rapeseed products in diets for growing pigs
and broiler chickens is possible without adverse effects on feed
utilisation and digestive tract physiology. The total elimination of
soybean meals from broiler diets is possible only with a
complementary dose of potato protein concentrate.
Alkaloids
Another important problem is the influence of alkaloids on the
physiology of the digestive tract of monogastric animals and the
biochemical profile of blood, indicating their possible toxic effects.
Potato or its byproducts, like potato protein concentrate, can
introduce some solanidine glycoalkaloids (solanine and
chaconine) into the diet, which can be toxic to animals. In our
study, it was shown that chickens are generally less sensitive to
this anti-nutritional factor than piglets.
Publications and future prospects
The KIAP&N publishes its own quarterly international scientific
journal,
The Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences,
in which
papers on animal nutrition, breeding and physiology, and feed
science, submitted from Poland and abroad, are published. In
2016, the KIAP&N will be a co-organiser of the scientific
conference ‘The Fifth EAAP International Symposium on Energy
and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition’ to be held in Krakow, the
former capital of Poland. It is open to co-operation with scientific
institutions and feed and food producers in terms of participating
in research and implementation.
Professor Jacek Skomial
Head of the Department of Monogastric Nutrition
The Kielanowski Institute ofAnimal Physiology and Nutrition
PolishAcademy of Sciences in Jab
ł
onna (Poland)
tel :
+48 (22) 765 33 01
H O R I Z O N 2 0 2 0 P R O J E C T S : P O R TA L
I S S U E S I X
103
P R O F I L E
A N I M A L H E A L T H
The Kielanowski Institute
of Animal Physiology
and Nutrition
Polish Academy of Sciences
in Jab
ł
onna
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