Pan European Networks - Horizon 2020 - page 39

relating to the level on which the caregiver demonstrated
intersubjective behaviour. This study proved how valuable it is to
support intersubjective communication.
Tactile communication
This investigation sought to foster the use of tactile bodily modality in
caregivers of persons with deafblindness. As such caregivers lack the
natural skills in tactile communication, interaction and everyday contact
is hampered.
As an instrument, the Intervention Model for Tactile Communication was
developed. Interventions based on this model are evaluated in three
studies of nine participants with deafblindness along with nine caregivers.
The intervention proved to be very effective for the participants with
deafblindness. Results showed that they all improved their use of tactile
initiatives, gestures and signs. The effects on tactile initiatives, gestures
and signs of the caregivers increased in most cases, but unexpected
outcomes were also measured, and, as a result, suggestions for practice
and further research were given.
Interaction and bodily emotional traces
This intervention study, as part of a PhD project, was focused on fostering
harmonious interactions and the use and recognition of expressions based
on bodily emotional traces (BET). Because people with deafblindness have
difficulties understanding normal, everyday experiences, tactile
impressions of daily activities are important. During the study, it was
assumed that support of caregivers during interaction and recognition of
expressions should help improve the quality of interaction.
The intervention was evaluated with five adults with congenital
deafblindness and an intellectual disability, in addition to eight caregivers.
During the intervention, all target behaviours increased: the attention of
client and caregiver, the confirmation by the caregiver, affective
involvement, the number of expressions based on BETs by the
participant, and the percentage of these expressions recognised by the
caregiver. During a follow-up investigation, most target behaviours
decreased and stayed above baseline level.
The outcomes of all these studies suggest that more can be done to
improve the interaction and communication of people with congenital
deafblindness through better supporting their caregivers. Communication
coaching has proved to be effective in preventing challenging behaviours
and negative emotions, and bringing communication to more advanced
layers of intersubjective communication. However, more international
research is needed on the third layer of intersubjective communication
and language in society. Furthermore, daily practice communication
coaching on a more permanent basis has proven to be a necessity.
emotions, reducing negative emotions, and
encouraging affective involvement on the
first and second layer of interpersonal
communication. It was also suitable for children
and adults with congenital deafblindness
across different caregivers, situations, settings
and organisations.
Intersubjective communication
The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the
effectiveness of the intervention programme on
the intersubjective development in three layers
for the support of communication between
people with deafblindness and their caregivers.
In two studies, six participants with deafblindness
and 25 of their caregivers were involved.
All participants demonstrated significant
improvements on the first and second layer, and
four of the six participants showed a significant
improvement on the third layer. The most effects
were seen during the communication phase, in
which caregivers were coached in their efforts to
transfer and share meanings with the client.
In a third study, the intervention was evaluated
on the effects for nine dyads (caregiver-client
couples). Positive outcomes were measured
for all dyads on the first and second layer, and
in four of the nine dyads for the third layer. It
further demonstrated that the level of
intersubjective behaviour was significant
Professor Dr Marleen Janssen
University of Groningen
B R OW S E
H O R I Z O N
2 0 2 0
H O R I Z O N 2 0 2 0 P R O J E C T S : P O R TA L
I S S U E S I X
39
O P T O M E T R Y
The investigation was
undertaken at the
University of Groningen,
the Netherlands
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