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radioisotopes, it also has unique properties in comparison with

these imaging modalities – among them should be noted the

non-ionising character of the ultrasonic radiation. On the basis of

contemporary knowledge there is an absence of side effects.

Ultrasound images of organs are obtained in real time at a speed

of tens of frames per second and – simultaneous to the imaging

of tissues – a colour ‘map’ of blood flow velocities in vessels can

be recorded. The range of ability to distinguish and detect small

lesions in the organs is approximately one millimetre. Small

dimensions of contemporary ultrasound devices are of great

significance. Many of them are portable, which enables

diagnostic investigation at the bedside. Obviously, there are

some limitations as well.

The main topics of research in the Department of

Ultrasound include:

n

Ultrasonic diagnostics of bones – in the research the bone

parameters, such as a ratio describing the dependency of

attenuation on frequency and sound velocity, are determined.

Simultaneously, intensive research on the use of information

which is contained in the wave scattered in the cancellous

bone, and the phenomenon of a wave velocity dispersion in

bones, is conducted. These values depend on the micro-

architecture of the cancellous bone and they are associated

with the process of osteoporosis;

n

Ultrasound diagnostics at the increased penetration range

using coded transmissions with the specific signature and

synthetic apertures;

n

Non-linear acoustics and harmonic imaging based on the use

of higher harmonics which undergo self-generation due to non-

linear propagation of ultrasound pulses that have sufficiently

large amplitude; they improve quality of the ultrasound images,

increase their contrast, and reduce artefacts;

n

Transdermal measurement of haematocrit with use of the

pulse Doppler technique and studies of wave attenuation in a

cross-section of blood vessels;

n

High-frequency ultrasound diagnostics for studies of the derma

changes (lesions), at a resolution of tens of micrometres, with

use of scanning beams at frequencies above 30MHz, and new

piezoelectric thick-film type transducers with a wide transfer

band; and

n

Thermal effects associating the ultrasound propagation

in tissues.

Department of Computational Science

Advanced numerical models for simulations of biomechanical

phenomena are developed in the Department of Computational

Science. They include constitutive modelling of cancellous bone,

including the so-called ‘parametric models’ of the tissue elasticity.

These models are employed to simulate adaptive remodelling of

bone microstructure in view of changing load conditions. The

prediction of bone remodelling is of crucial importance, e.g. for

estimation of the durability of endoprostheses and optimisation of

their shape and other design parameters.

Division of Polymer Physics

Research conducted at the Division of Polymer Physics, headed

by Professor Paweł Sajkiewicz, includes advanced works in the

area of tissue

engineering.We

are focused on the formation of an

artificial extracellular matrix by the electrospinning of submicron

polymeric fibres, as well as bicomponent fibres spun from

solutions of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers in non-

toxic solvents. The aim is to establish correlation between the

conditions of fibre formation, the matrix structure, and the scaffold

in vitro

bioactivity.

Joint Laboratory of Multifunctional Materials

A research group gathering researchers of the IPPT and Warsaw

University of Technology is focused on the investigation and

development of advanced materials for medical applications. The

main aim of the group is to develop and initiate new technological

solutions for biomaterials, implants, tissue engineering products,

and drug delivery systems for the purpose of treatment of human

diseases as well as improving health. In particular, the research is

concentrated on finding solutions for cartilage and bone tissue

repair and regeneration.

The staff of the institute consists of several renowned scientists

occupying prestigious positions in international organisations,

major conference programme committees, and editorial boards of

leading journals. Their experience combined with the commitment

and activity of their followers – students and young researchers –

provides optimal conditions for identifying and attaining ambitious

goals and objectives that are of central importance to the world’s

science and industry.

ProfessorTadeuszBurczyn´ski

Director

Institute of FundamentalTechnological Research

Polish Academy of Sciences

tel :

+48 22 826 8911

tburczynski@ippt.pan.pl www.ippt.pan.pl/en www.horizon2020projects.com

H O R I Z O N 2 0 2 0 P R O J E C T S : P O R TA L

I S S U E S E V E N

101

P R O F I L E

M E D I C A L T E C H N O L O G Y & R E S E A R C H

Fig. 3 Distribution of bone density and elastic anisotropy as a result of

simulation of adaptive tissue microstructure remodelling in femur, intact

and with implanted endoprosthesis (2010:

J Biomech,

43, 563-569)